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Bibil Identifier bibil:227327
Publication Type Journal article
Title (English, Long) Enemy at the Gates: The Phenomenon of Fortifications in Israel Reexamined
Author Ben-Ami, Doron
Author Wazana, Nili
Journal Vetus Testamentum (Volume: 63, Issue: 3)
Year (Publication) 2013
Year (Original (1st Edition)) 2013
Year (Copyright) 2013
Year (Reference) 2013
Language English
Pages 368–382 Pages
Genre Original
Abstract This article addresses the phenomenon of fortifications in Iron Age Israel and tries to portray the specific historical background behind their construction by integrating the archaeological data, the extra-biblical sources and the analysis of the biblical text. Of the two clear stratigraphical phases of fortifications noticed in several Iron Age cities, the latter is more massive and elaborated compared with its predecessor. We propose that the developed phase of fortifications in Israel was created under the Omrides, in a time of economic and political strength, as a response to the expansion policy of Aram Damascus. This analysis offers an explanation to the intriguing absence of any biblical reference to the Assyrians prior to Tiglath-pileser III, and casts a fresh look upon the current debate on the chronology of the Iron Age II. If the elaborate fortification systems were initiated during the first half of the ninth century, the initial phase of the urbanization process, which preceded this developed stage, must have begun in the days prior to the Omride dynasty, namely in the tenth century.
DOI 10.1163/15685330-12341119
Keywords Thesaurus BiBIL : Old Testament (Introduction) : Archaeology of Canaan-Israel : Periods : Iron Age (1200-586)
Thesaurus BiBIL : Old Testament (Introduction) : Archaeology of Canaan-Israel : Themes : Fortifications
Thesaurus BiBIL : Unbound Keywords : Chronology
Thesaurus BiBIL : Ancient Near East : Ancient Near East (in general) : Themes : Arameans
Thesaurus BiBIL : Old Testament (Introduction) : History of Canaan-Israel : Periods : Divided Monarchy (933-587) : From the Separation to about the 8th cent. : Israel (From the Separation to Jehoahaz 803) : Omri and Ahab
Thesaurus BiBIL : Ancient Near East : Mesopotamia (Elam, Mari, Sumer, Babylon, Assyria) : Assyria : History and Civilization : 1st millennium : Dominion of the New Assyrian Empire : Shalmanasar III
Thesaurus BiBIL : Ancient Near East : Mesopotamia (Elam, Mari, Sumer, Babylon, Assyria) : Assyria : History and Civilization : 1st millennium : Dominion of the New Assyrian Empire : Tiglath-Pileser
Pericopes Amos 1,3-2,3
2 Kings 15,19
2 Kings 16,5
2 Kings 16,9
2 Kings 13,5
Isaiah 7,1-7,6
Last modification 2017-10-27