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Bibil Identifier bibil:215461
Publication Type Journal article
Title (English, Long) 'Who Can Forgive Sins but God Alone?' Human and Angelic Agents, and Divine Forgiveness in Early Judaism
Author Johansson, Daniel
Journal Journal for the Study of the New Testament (Volume: 33, Issue: 4)
Year (Publication) 2011
Year (Original (1st Edition)) 2011
Year (Copyright) 2011
Year (Reference) 2011
Language English
Pages 351-374 Pages
Genre Original
Abstract Was forgiveness of sins viewed as a divine prerogative, uniquely reserved for the God of Israel in early Judaism? While some scholars think this was the case, others have questioned or qualified such a view, arguing that other figures, such as priests, prophets, various messianic figures, or angels, could forgive sins in the place of God. This article surveys and critiques the main evidence that has been put forward to demonstrate this. The outcome is mainly negative. With the possible exception of one or two passages which may ascribe the authority to pardon sin to the Angel of YHWH, no firm evidence can be found which demonstrates that other figures than God forgave sins. Various strands of early Judaism conceived of human and angelic agents who interceded on behalf of others, expiated sin and mediated forgiveness from God, but they all seem to have shared the view that forgiveness is divine prerogative.
DOI 10.1177/0142064X11404601
Keywords Thesaurus BiBIL : Milieu : Ancient Judaism : Themes : Sin
Thesaurus BiBIL : Old Testament (Introduction) : Theology : Themes : Forgiveness
Thesaurus BiBIL : Milieu : Ancient Judaism : Themes : Angel
Last modification 2017-10-27