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Bibil Identifier bibil:202605
Publication Type Journal article
Title (French, Long) L'autel sur le mont Garizim
Title (French, ) Deutéronome 27 et la rédaction de la torah entre Samaritains et Judéens à l'époque achéménide
Author Nihan, C.
Journal Transeuphratène (Volume: 36)
Year (Publication) 2008
Year (Original (1st Edition)) 2008
Year (Copyright) 2008
Year (Reference) 2008
Year (Second publication) 2008
Language French
Pages 97-124 Pages
Genre Original
Abstract In the past decades, much scholarly work has been devoted to the important issue of the relationship between Judeans and Samarians throughout the Second Temple period. So far, this major scholarly development has not had any significant impact on pentateuchal studies. For most specialists, the Pentateuch was initially intended for Judeans specifically, and its acceptance by the Yahwistic community in Samaria is seen as a later development that has no relevance, historically speaking, for understanding the composition of the first part of the TaNaK. The present study argues that such a view is no longer relevant and needs to be modified. A close analysis of Deuteronomy 27 shows that the command to build an altar on Mount Ebal (in the Masoretic text) or Mount Gerizim (in the Samaritan Pentateuch) in verses 4-8 is part of a late revision that took place at the time of the editing of the Pentateuch, i.e., in the second half of the Persian period. Several observations suggest that the reading « Gerizim » which is preserved in the Samaritan Pentateuch is original, and that « Ebal », in the MT, is a later, anti-Samari(t)an correction. Moreover, recent archaeological excavations of the Gerizim site, supervised by Y. Magen, indicate the existence of a stratum from the Persian period already. Therefore, the interpolation of Deut 27,4-8 should be viewed as a concession to Samarian Yahwists at the time of the editing of the Pentateuch, shortly after the building of a cultic site on Mount Gerizim. Such concession was obviously required so as to make the Pentateuch acceptable not only by Judeans but by Samarians as well. The formulation of Deut 27,4-8 is remarkably ambiguous - and deliberately so. On one hand, the command to build an altar on Mount Gerizim suggests that it is the māqôm, the one « place » chosen by Yhwh according to Deut 12, and this is clearly how Samarian Yahwists would have read it. On the other hand, the language of that command in Deut 21 is clearly derived not from Deut 12, but from Exod 20,24-26- an entirely distinct regulation which, contrary to Deut 12, admits multiple sanctuaries! This device is not without significance: it suggests that the Gerizim sanctuary may be legitimate, but only inasmuch as the Torah preserves a law allowing for multiple sanctuaries. For Judeans, therefore, it was obvious that the sanctuary chosen by Yhwh was not Mount Gerizim but Mount Zion, as the second part of the TaNaK, the Nebiim, demonstrates. Lastly, the origin of the reading « Ebal », in Deut 27,4 - and thus of the anti-Samari(t)an reception of Deut 27 — should be traced back to Josh 8,30-35 MT (= Jos 9,2a-f LXX), a very late insert in the book of Joshua as is shown, inter alia, by its different position in the MT and the LXX.
Pericopes Deuteronomy 27
Terms גּרזים
Last modification 2010-03-05